[New Book] Routledge Handbook on the Sciences in Islamicate Societies: Practices from the 2nd/8th to the 13th/19th Centuries

Editor: Sonja Brentjes (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science)

Publisher: Routledge, 2023

The Routledge Handbook on the Sciences in Islamicate Societies provides a comprehensive survey on science in the Islamic world from the 8th to the 19th century. Across six sections, a group of subject experts discuss and analyze scientific practices across a wide range of Islamicate societies. The authors take into consideration several contexts in which science was practiced, ranging from intellectual traditions and persuasions to institutions, such as courts, schools, hospitals, and observatories, to the materiality of scientific practices, including the arts and craftsmanship.

Chapters also devote attention to scientific practices of minority communities in Muslim majority societies, and Muslim minority groups in societies outside the Islamicate world, thereby allowing readers to better understand the opportunities and constraints of scientific practices under varying local conditions. Through replacing Islam with Islamicate societies, the book opens up ways to explain similarities and differences between diverse societies ruled by Muslim dynasties.

This handbook will be an invaluable resource for both established academics and students looking for an introduction to the field. It will appeal to those involved in the study of the history of science, the history of ideas, intellectual history, social or cultural history, Islamic studies, Middle East and African studies including history, and studies of Muslim communities in Europe and South and East Asia.


Introduction – Sonja Brentjes

Part 1: Late Antiquity, translating and the formation of the sciences in Islamicate polities (1st BCH-7th/5th-13th centuries)

1.1. Translation as an enduring and widespread cultural practice – Sonja Brentjes

1.2. Multiple translation activities – Arash Zeini, Matteo Martelli, Paola Buzi, Alessandro Bausi, Peter Adamson

1.3. Translations in the mathematical sciences – Nathan Sidoli

1.4. Translations in medicine and the occult sciences into Arabic and Syriac and their contexts after 80/700 – Peter E. Pormann

1.5. Geometry and its branches – Glen Van Brummelen

1.6. The astral sciences until the end of the Ilkhanid dynasty: Attitudes, experts and practices – Sonja Brentjes

1.7. Algebra and arithmetic – Jeffrey Oaks

1.8. Optics: experiments and applications – Johannes Thomann

1.9. Automata and balances – Constantin Canavas

1.10. Medicine – Peter E. Pormann

1.11. Natural philosophy – Andreas Lammer

1.12. Alchemy and the chemical crafts – Regula Forster

1.13. Geography and mapmaking – Michael Bonner

1.14. Physiognomy: science of intuition – Liana Saif

1.15. The Hieroglyphic script deciphered? An Arabic treatise on ancient and occult alphabets – Christopher Braun

1.16. Practices of Zoroastrian scholars before and after the advent of Islam – Götz König

1.17. Evaluating the past: scholarly views of ancient societies and their sciences – Ulrich Rudolph

Part 2: Scientific practices at courts, observatories and hospitals (2nd/8th-13th/19th centuries)

2.1. The emergence of Persian as a language of science – Hossein Kamaly

2.2. The emergence of a new scholarly language: the case of Ottoman Turkish – Ahmed Tunç Şen

2.3. Imperial demand and support – Eva Orthmann

2.4. The practice of pharmacy in later medieval Egypt – Leigh Chipman

2.5. Ottoman and Safavid health practices and institutions – Miriam Shefer-Mossensohn

2.6. Planetary theory – Amir Gamini

2.7. Practices of celestial observation – Sonja Brentjes and Amir Gamini

2.8. The practical aspects of Ottoman maps – Gottfried Hagen

2.9. Another Scientific Revolution: the occult sciences in theory and experimentalist practice – Matthew Melvin-Koushki

2.10. Arts, sciences and princely patronage at Islamicate courts (4th-11th/10th-17th centuries) – Yves Porter

2.11. Physiognomy (ʿilm-i firāset) and politics at the Ottoman court – Emin Lelić

Part 3: Learning and collecting institutions – debates and methods (3rd/9th-13th/19th centuries)

3.1. Libraries – beginnings, diffusion and consolidation – Lutz Richter-Bernburg

3.2. Madrasas and sciences – Sonja Brentjes and Abdelmalek Bouzari

3.3. Scientific matters in kalām (‘theology’) – Ulrich Rudolph

3.4. Ashʿarite occasionalist cosmology, al-Ghazālī and the pursuit of the natural sciences in Islamicate societies – Frank Griffel

3.5. The role of sense perception and “experience” (tajriba) in Arabic theories of science – Frank Griffel

3.6. Logic: didactics and visual representations – Johannes Thomann

3.7. Medical commentaries – Nahyan Fancy

3.8. Literary genres and visual representations in the astral sciences – Sonja Brentjes

Part 4: The materiality of the sciences (3rd/9th-13th/19th centuries)

4.1. The materiality of scholarship – Konrad Hirschler

4.2. Three-dimensional astronomy: celestial globes and armillary spheres – Taha Yasin Arslan

4.3. Projecting the heavens: astrolabes – Taha Yasin Arslan

4.4. Medical instruments – Fabian Käs

4.5. Alchemical equipment – Sébastien Moureau

4.6. Water and technology in the Islamicate world – Charlotte Schriwer

4.7. Arts and sciences in the Islamicate world – Anna Caiozzo

Part 5: Centers, regions, empires and the outskirts (3rd/9th-13th/19th centuries)

5.1. Mathematical knowledge fields in the Islamicate world: similarities and differences – Ahmed Djebbar

5.2. Jewish mathematical activities in medieval Islamicate societies and border zones – Naomi Aradi and Roy Wagner

5.3. Patronage and the practice of astrology in al-Andalus and the Maghrib – Julio Samsó

5.4. Anwāʾ and mīqāt in calendars and almanacs of the societies of al-Andalus and the Extreme Maghrib – Roser Puig Aguilar

5.5. Scholarly communities dedicated to the sciences in al-Andalus – Miquel Forcada

5.6. Post-Avicennan natural philosophy – Jon McGinnis

5.7. Cool and calming as the rose: pharmaceutical texts as tools of regional medical practices in early modern India – Deborah Schlein

5.8. Epistemic practices of doctors in the Persianate world – Fabrizio Speziale

5.9. Pre-Modern Ottoman perspectives on natural phenomena – Osman Süreyya Kocabaş

5.10. Scientific practices in sub-Saharan Africa – Marc Moyon

5.11. Medical practices in Tibet in inter-cultural contexts – Ronit Yoeli-Tllalim

5.12. Islamicate astral sciences in eastern Eurasia during the Mongol-Yuan dynasty (1271- 1368) – Yoichi Isahaya

5.13. Collation and articulation of Arabo-Persian scientific texts in early modern China – Dror Weil

5.14. The multiplicity of translating communities on the Iberian Peninsula – Alexander Fidora and José Luis Alexis Rivera Duque

Part 6: Encounters, conflicts, changes (4th-13th/10th-19th centuries)

6.1. Cross-communal scholarly interactions – Nathan Gibson and Ronny Vollandt

6.2. Which is the right qibla? – Mònica Rius

6.3. Were philosophers considered heretics in Islam? – Frank Griffel

6.4. Systems of knowledge: debating organization and changing relationships – Sonja Brentjes, Nahyan Fancy and Kenan Tekin

6.5. Embassies, trading posts, travelers and missionaries – Simon Mills

6.6. The sciences in two private libraries from Ottoman Syria – Boris Liebrenz

6.7. 13th/19th-century narratives and translations of science in the South Asian Islamicate world – Dhruv Raina and Irfan Habib

Consolidated Bibliography

Source: https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-on-Science-in-the-Islamicate-World-Practices-from-the/Brentjes/p/book/9781138047594